When More Visible ≠ Safer: Target Fixation

night_paceline

Looking at the photo above from our Flèche last year, it’s easy to think: “Two of these riders are much safer than the other two.” The reflective vests really stand out in the flash of the camera.

Being hit from behind is one of the primal fears of cyclists. It’s the one accident that we are almost powerless to prevent. We rely on drivers giving us enough room, so it’s important to be visible. It’s perhaps natural to think that if we are even more visible, we somehow can will drivers to give us more room.

In urban environments, the biggest danger for cyclists is being overlooked. There is a lot of visual clutter – even at night – that competes for the attention of drivers. In this scenario, more lights and reflective gear all can be useful to make the rider more visible.

However, the photo above was taken during a moonless night on a backroad miles from the next light. Here, a single red light usually suffices to be seen. Adding a pedal or ankle reflector helps identify the rider as a cyclist. This can be useful for traffic approaching from behind to judge the cyclist’s speed.

Adding even more lights and reflectors may not be a good idea. Most fatalities during U.S. brevets were caused by drivers hitting cyclists who were NOT in their lane of traffic. The victims were on the shoulder or even on the other side of the road, facing the other way. It does not appear that lacking visibility was a concern here – on the contrary, target fixation may have contributed to the accidents.

Target fixation occurs when drivers (or pilots) focus on a light source. As most cyclists know, your bike, car or airplane goes where you look, so if you look at the taillight of a cyclist riding on the shoulder, you are more likely to drift onto the shoulder yourself. This is not a theoretical concern – it has been documented in simulators.

Target fixation appears more pronounced for impaired drivers (whether sleepy or drunk). It also appears to be more pronounced with blinking lights than steady ones. And the brighter the lights, the stronger the target fixation becomes.

Police cars, which are on the shoulder during a traffic stop, are frequently hit by drunk drivers. You would expect drunk drivers to do all they can to avoid police cars, yet they plow right into them. Google “police car hit on shoulder”, and you’ll find many reports of such accidents, and even a video of a car that veers right, glances off a police car, and then hits the car the police has pulled over. Faced with the dangers of target fixation, some police officers now recommend turning off the flashing lights during traffic stops on the shoulder.

red_taillight

What does this mean for cyclists? Really, the safest illumination is one that is powerful enough to show your location, but not so strong that it causes target fixation. When it’s completely dark, even a single red light will be plenty visible.

In fact, when riding on a shoulder at night, it may be safest to be invisible. The odds that a driver will swerve randomly onto the shoulder and hit you are smaller than the odds of attracting an impaired driver through target fixation.

(However, if you ride without taillights on the shoulder, you are not complying with the law and randonneuring rules, and there is the risk that you will forget to switch on your taillight when you leave the shoulder and ride on the road again.)

When you think about target fixation, you also realize that blinding oncoming traffic with high-powered or even flashing lights appears to be downright suicidal. The same applies to helmet lights – if you are looking at a car coming the other way, you guide them right toward you!

For me, this means that in urban environments, I wear reflective materials. Even there, I don’t see the need to light up my bike like a Christmas tree, because my headlight actually makes me much more visible at night than I am during daytime. On dark rural roads, I will take off my reflective vest. I will rely on my taillight and reflective ankle bands to broadcast my location and speed, without dazzling drivers or having them lock onto me in a bout of target fixation.

How do you stay safe when riding at night?

Further reading:

Posted in Cycling Safety, Rides | 38 Comments

BQ in Japan

view_from_room

The Bicycle Quarterly team is in Japan for a few weeks of visiting manufacturers and builders, enjoying the culture, and cycling. Above is the view from our window in Kyoto. Doesn’t it look like a dream spot, with temples in the foreground and rugged mountains in the background?

cherry_blossom

Our wonderful hosts for the first part of the trip are Harumi and Ikuo Tsuchiya of Cycles Grand Bois. Spring is starting, and the cherry blossoms are painting the landscape white and pink. They are barely budding in the mountains, but already fully blooming in the ancient city of Nara in the lowlands.

passhunting

The riding is spectacular. Small roads with almost no traffic that go up and down incredible mountains in series of switchbacks. Many of the passes are still covered with snow from the winter, so we’ve done a lot of out-and-back exploration…

The food is great and the people are incredibly friendly. Japan really seems like a dream destination for cycling.

Hahn is using Instagram (search for user hahn_rossman) with the hashtag #bqinjapan, so you can follow our travels here. A full report will come in the Summer issue of Bicycle Quarterly.

Posted in Uncategorized | 11 Comments

Handlebars with Generous Curves

FranzAubisque1928

Traditional handlebars have generous curves that support your hands well. They offer a multitude of hand positions for long-distance comfort. We are glad that today, Grand Bois offers three proven, useful drop handlebar shapes.

As professional races have become shorter and faster, modern handlebars have become shorter and shallower. For racers, that is fine, since they put out so much power that their hands barely touch the bars. The rest of us may consider the handlebars racers used during the “heroic age,” when races were longer, speeds were lower, and the roads rougher. Above is Nicolas Frantz on the way to winning the 1928 Tour de France in a photo from The Competition Bicycle.

theo_photo

One thing you’ll notice about many classic handlebar shapes is their long reach and flat ramps. This gives you an additional hand position behind the brake hoods. Theo Roffe took this photo of me during a 600 km brevet. You can see how I am resting the ball of my thumb on the ramps. That part of your palm has the fewest nerves, so it’s a good semi-upright position for riding long distances. For a more stretched-out position, I still have the position “on the hoods”, as well as the drops for a more aerodynamic position.

rhcyclotourisme1950

“Randonneur” handlebars (above) sweep upward slightly to offer even better support of your hands in the position behind the brake hoods – when you cup your hands slightly, the upsweep on the ramps supports your hands perfectly. However, this upsweep must be carefully designed to match the curve of the human hand.

The Grand Bois Randonneur handlebars are based on a tried-and-true French design that has proven itself over millions of miles. Unfortunately, many other “Randonneur” handlebars only echo the general shape, but don’t adequately support your hands in the right spots, so their curves may put more, not less, pressure on your hands.

RH1960sDiagonale

Grand Bois’ “Maes Parallel” shape doesn’t have the upsweep of their “Randonneur” bars, so the top and bottom of the bars are almost parallel. This means that the tops provide a great hand position, with the advantage that you can move around your hands a bit as you ride.

RHLongchamps1970s

One disadvantage of the parallel ramps is that your wrists can hit the bars when you throw the bike from side to side in an all-out sprint. The “Maes 1970s” handlebars curve a bit more to provide a little more room in a sprint. Their name stems from the fact that by the 1970s, racers sprinted out of the saddle more often, and thus the popular Philippe “Professionel” handlebar was redesigned to accommodate this change in riding style.

We are glad that Grand Bois offers these three excellent and proven handlebar shapes. They recently added a wider 42 cm version of the “Randonneur” model. (The other two models already have been available in the 42 cm width.)

Click here to find out more about Grand Bois handlebars.

 

 

 

Posted in Handlebars, Testing and Tech | 34 Comments

Switching to Zero Emissions

cyclist_puffing

Cycling used to be the most environmentally friendly mode of transportation available, but with recent technological developments, this no longer is the case.

Even though the emissions of riding bikes are small, they are not insignificant. As we cyclists convert carbohydrates into energy to power our legs, we emit CO2. The faster we ride, the higher the emissions. One could think of a cyclist’s nostrils as an exhaust pipe. The mouth forms an auxiliary exhaust, which opens automatically when the emissions exceed the capacity of the primary exhaust.

2013-nissan-leaf

New technology has brought us a better option. There now are cars with zero emissions (above).

At Bicycle Quarterly, we still promote riding for leisure and health, but for transportation, you should consider using a less-polluting vehicle. Although in some circles it was considered virtuous to ride your bike to the start of a ride or event, now you should strap your bike onto the roof of a “zero emissions” vehicle to reduce the environmental impact of your pastime.

Dessin_snorkel

Several companies are working on solutions to make cycling more environmentally friendly. One of the most promising is to create more distance between the emissions and the cyclist (above), following the model of “zero emission” cars, which run on power generated by polluting power sources – it’s just that they aren’t in close proximity to the car. Some cyclists already have adopted diving snorkels to reduce their emissions that way.

An even easier solution may be to redefine “bicycle” to encompass just the machine, without the power source. The bicycle’s emissions already are zero, it’s just the cyclist who pollutes. The bicycle industry has started an aggressive lobbying campaign to change the relevant regulations.

As you can see, even small steps can go a long way toward protecting our planet’s future! The bike industry is working on decreasing the emissions from their products. Hopefully, we can announce a “zero emissions” bicycle soon.

Posted in Uncategorized | 52 Comments

Feedback on the new Compass Tires

barlow_pass_in_britain

As we get the first feedback from riders about our new Compass tires, it’s nice to hear that others enjoy them as much as we do. Here are a few samples of unsolicited feedback:

“I used the new Barlow Pass tyres on a route that included miles of rough railway trackbed. They make a big difference! A lovely ride both on and off road, I realise what I’ve been missing after years of heavy-duty Schwalbes.” – Tim Bird, who took the photo above.

“Thanks for making available the finest clincher tires I’ve ridden on in my 45 years of cycling!” – a customer who placed an order for another 8 tires!

“These new tires feel like they were designed for racing. It seems like they have better rolling resistance (as if I were running in a lower gear) and with better cornering that the Hetre XLs.” – a customer who wondered whether we’d discovered an extra-grippy rubber compound for the tread.

“Recently I have been looking at everyone’s rubber trying to find that perfect tire. You have pretty much delivered everything I had in mind.” – a former tire developer for a big U.S bike company.

“I have ridden about 130 miles so far on the 700×38 Barlow Pass Superlight tires. They have made my mid-1980′s Miyata 1000 touring bike much more enjoyable and fun to ride. Thanks.”

“I have been commuting on the Barlow pass tires for a week or two and am really happy with them. They roll faster and smooth out the bumps more than my previous set of Schwalbe Marathon Racers.”

“Oh my gosh I just love those tires!”

It’s nice to see that others share our enthusiasm and appreciate all the research and testing that went into designing these tires. Click here to find out more about our Compass tires.

Posted in Tires | 25 Comments

From Aircraft to Bicycles

coste-1

On September 1, 1930, two French pilots were the first to fly from Paris to New York. This was a huge achievement for them, but also their aircraft, since they flew against the prevailing winds.

coste-22

Most people know about Charles Lindbergh, who had flown the other way just three years earlier. Lindbergh’s flight took great courage and a good portion of luck, and it was possible in part because he was aided by the strong westerly winds over the North Atlantic. Flying against the wind with 1920s aircraft technology was an entirely different matter.

Lindbergh’s Spirit of Saint Louis had a 223 horsepower engine and carried 425 gallons of fuel. The flight took Lindbergh 33.5 hours.

The plane that flew the other way, the Point d’Interrogation (Question Mark) was equipped with a 12-cylinder Hispano-Suiza engine, which put out 650 horsepower. The plane carried 1368 gallons of fuel. Both the power output and the fuel capacity were roughly three times as great as on Lindbergh’s plane. Even with this powerful plane, the two pilots took over 37 hours to complete the flight, four hours longer than Lindbergh.

Building a plane that could carry this much fuel was an engineering and manufacturing challenge, especially with the relatively heavy and feeble 1920s engines. The plane had to be light enough to take off and stay airborne for 37 hours, yet strong enough to withstand turbulences as it was buffeted by the strong winds over the North Atlantic.

portp

The pilot, Dieudonné Costes (right), and his navigator, Maurice Bellonte, were veterans of many record attempts. They succeeded where 21 attempts had failed over the previous three years. Five teams had perished trying to fly from Paris to New York.

Despite these difficulties and risk, the success of Costes and Bellonte owed little to luck. As Costes told the press before his flight: “I have weighed everything, calculated everything. If we don’t succeed, then it is impossible.”

This careful approach extended to their airplane, which they had tested by flying almost 5000 miles from Paris to Manchuria in 1929. The trip from Paris to New York was “only” 4300 miles… The name, Question Mark, was coined by the workers who built it, at the Breguet aircraft factory. The ultimate purpose of the plane was secret even to them, so they referred to it as the Question Mark, and the name stuck. It was even painted on the side of the plane for the record attempt…

Herse_Brequet_Bicycle_Quarterly

One of the workers who had built the Question Mark was René Herse (second from left). He learned his metalworking skills working on prototype aircraft. At the time, engineering drawings often were quite rudimentary, and it was up to the fabricators to interpret them and turn them into metal. This is how Herse developed his magic feel for materials and stresses.

books_herse_poster2

When Herse began making bicycles in 1938, he transferred his skills from prototype aircraft to bicycles. It is not surprising that his bikes were built like aircraft: They were light, yet strong. Reliability was his foremost concern – a plane over the North Atlantic cannot simply pull over to the side of the road if something goes wrong. And like airplanes, René Herse’s bikes were elegant because of their purposeful design, not because he added ornamentation.

To me, René Herse’s bikes have been an incredible inspiration. He was innovative, but he also had a great respect for solutions that had proven themselves. He came from a humble background, yet he made the bikes for a veritable “Who’s Who” of racers, randonneurs and high society. Even today, his bikes are hard to surpass.

rh_drawing_zider

My own bike (above) really is built to the blueprint of a 1950s Herse – carefully updated in a few places where technology has advanced. Its performance brings a smile to my face and enables me to push beyond what I used to think possible. Most of that is due to the genius of René Herse, which was formed in the years he worked on prototype aircraft.

Further reading: The entire René Herse story is told in René Herse: The Bikes • The Builder • The Riders

Posted in books, People who inspired us | 16 Comments

New Rims and Hammered Fenders

rims_gb_rim

Grand Bois has re-designed their rims, so that they offer proper fit and support for tires. The new rims provide a great alternative for riders who don’t plan to run their tires tubeless, since they make tire installation easier and more foolproof.

well_deep

When 650B tires became popular, we noticed that they often did not seat well on the rims. After some research, we realized that many 650B rims were poorly designed, with wells that were too deep to support the tire. The tires had to float (above), being held in place only by the hook on the rim sidewall. There are ways to mitigate this problem, but we stopped selling the Grand Bois rims when we realized that they were affected by this problem. Other companies continued to sell their rims with over-deep wells, and riders have been plagued with the problems of poor tire seating.

2_rims

We are happy to announce that Grand Bois re-designed their rims to solve this issue. This required a new extrusion die, which is a considerable investment. The photo above shows the new (left) and the old rims. They look almost identical at first sight…

2_rims

… but when you measure carefully (or draw a line in the photo), you see the difference: The new one (left) has a slightly shallower well than the old one (right). It doesn’t look like much, but it makes the difference between a tire that floats and one that is supported by the rim bed.

We have tested the new rims, and they fit the tires properly. In most cases, you simply install the tire, inflate it, and it runs round and true, without any further manipulation. With the flexible sidewalls of the tires we like so much, you sometimes have to push the bead in place, but it’s easy. This is how it should be.

The redesigned rims are in stock, both in 650B and 700C sizes, with 32 and 36 holes. They have a classic appearance with a rounded box profile that distributes the stress of the spoke tension well. The rims are polished to a high shine. The sidewalls are a little thicker than those of most modern rims, which means you will get a lot more miles out of them.

Unlike “tubeless-ready” rims, the Grand Bois rims have a curved bed, so the tire slides into position as it is inflated. (On “tubeless-ready” rims, the tire bead needs to clear a shoulder in the rim bed.) When the tire is deflated, it automatically moves to the center of the rim well, making it easy to remove. On the samples we tested, we easily could remove our Compass tires without tire levers. The Grand Bois rims are designed for use with cloth rim tape, so they have a little extra room for the thicker rim tape.

hammered_fender

In other wheel news, we finally got hammered Grand Bois 650B fenders in stock. Honjo took a long time to make them, but it was worth the wait. Functionally and aesthetically, these fenders are close to perfect. They envelope the tire nicely, and their diameter is a perfect fit for 650B x 42 mm tires without further “adjustment.” The hammered dimples not only give the fender a nice-looking texture, but they also make dents and scratches almost invisible. Like all aluminum fenders, they are ultralight and the rolled edges keep the water inside.

Click here for more information on the rims, and here for the fenders.

Posted in hubs/rims, Testing and Tech | 31 Comments